With more than 125 000 modules in Space as of 2017, and with more than 18 years of Flight Heritage with no Failure reported, 3D PLUS is the largest Hybrid Space Qualified catalog products and custom System-In-Packages (SiPs) manufacturer in Europe.
3D PLUS Radiation Assurance Policy has been initially set-up for its Radiation Tolerant Products, and it covers all the effects induced on the semiconductor devices by the Space radiation environment. In Space, electronic devices are subject to radiations (electrons, heavy ions, high energy protons, …). Interactions between these particles and the silicon structure of the 3D PLUS stacks induce two types of effects:
- Total Ionizing Dose effect (TID)
This is a cumulative, long term destructive effect.
The device tolerance is dependent on die design (die mask revision) and on manufacturing process (Wafer diffusion lot - Batch Code). The device tolerance is expressed in kRad(Si) and can be improved with additional shielding (depending on mission’s radiation profile).
- Single Event Effects (SEE)
This is a single event effect that can happen at any time of the mission. The device tolerance is dependent on die design (die mask revision). The Single Event Effects can be distinguished in three main categories:
- Single Event Latchup (SEL)
This is a destructive effect.
The device tolerance expressed in LET threshold (MeV/mg.cm²).
- Single Event Upset (SEU)
This is a Nondestructive effect. The device tolerance is expressed in LET threshold (MeV/mg.cm²) and saturated cross section (cm2/bit). These parameters allow calculating the bit error rate for a given mission profile. SEU effects can be mitigated by appropriate correction algorithm (TMR, EDAC, …)
- Single Event Functional Interrupt (SEFI)
This is a Nondestructive effect. The device tolerance is expressed in LET threshold (MeV/mg.cm²) and saturated cross section (cm2/device). These parameters allow calculating the SEFI error rate for a given mission profile. SEFI effects can be mitigated by appropriate correction algorithm (TMR, Power cycles, …).
- Single Event Latchup (SEL)
3D PLUS Radiation Tolerant Products follow the guidelines of our Radiation Assurance Policy:
Radiation Verification Tests are performed for the space qualification of every new semiconductor device:
- SEU/SEL is die revision dependent, and the verification tests are performed for each die revision used in the modules during the die qualification flow (then, for every batch, the die revision – die mask is controlled to be sure that the qualification data are applicable to the batch),
- TID is batch dependent, and the verification test is performed for every batch.
The Radiation Tolerance of the modules derivate from these radiation verification tests results with the following rules:
- SEL and TID: the stacks behave the same than the basic semiconductor devices,
- SEU and SEFI: taking into account the basic devices’ characteristics, the error rate of the module can be calculated for a given mission profile (the curve cross section vs LET threshold are provided to our customers for making their simulations).
Availability of the Radiation Data
- Generic results can be found at the 3D PLUS website for each product family. For each part number the radiation result can be found within the product detail specification at chapter 6.
- Generic report can be delivered under NDA. Generic test conditions and single event cross section curve, will be listed in the generic report to permit the designer to make error rate calculation.
- Detail report can be reviewed at 3D PLUS. Detailed test conditions and datalog during tests will be listed in the detail report.
Option R : Specific TID verification test can be requested with option R (according to part number decoder), and the detailed TID report will be delivered with the product.
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